bitcoin
Bitcoin (BTC) $ 63,949.13
ethereum
Ethereum (ETH) $ 3,053.96
tether
Tether (USDT) $ 1.00
bnb
BNB (BNB) $ 556.53
xrp
XRP (XRP) $ 0.513543
cardano
Cardano (ADA) $ 0.478045
usd-coin
USDC (USDC) $ 1.00
matic-network
Polygon (MATIC) $ 0.678487
binance-usd
BUSD (BUSD) $ 0.999935
dogecoin
Dogecoin (DOGE) $ 0.15532
okb
OKB (OKB) $ 54.74
polkadot
Polkadot (DOT) $ 6.73
shiba-inu
Shiba Inu (SHIB) $ 0.000023
tron
TRON (TRX) $ 0.109649
uniswap
Uniswap (UNI) $ 7.58
wrapped-bitcoin
Wrapped Bitcoin (WBTC) $ 63,963.14
dai
Dai (DAI) $ 0.999814
litecoin
Litecoin (LTC) $ 81.99
staked-ether
Lido Staked Ether (STETH) $ 3,051.58
solana
Solana (SOL) $ 142.46
avalanche-2
Avalanche (AVAX) $ 35.13
chainlink
Chainlink (LINK) $ 13.96
cosmos
Cosmos Hub (ATOM) $ 8.22
the-open-network
Toncoin (TON) $ 6.07
ethereum-classic
Ethereum Classic (ETC) $ 26.24
leo-token
LEO Token (LEO) $ 5.77
filecoin
Filecoin (FIL) $ 6.19
bitcoin-cash
Bitcoin Cash (BCH) $ 477.32
monero
Monero (XMR) $ 117.33
bitcoin
Bitcoin (BTC) $ 63,949.13
ethereum
Ethereum (ETH) $ 3,053.96
tether
Tether (USDT) $ 1.00
bnb
BNB (BNB) $ 556.53
usd-coin
USDC (USDC) $ 1.00
xrp
XRP (XRP) $ 0.513543
binance-usd
BUSD (BUSD) $ 0.999935
dogecoin
Dogecoin (DOGE) $ 0.15532
cardano
Cardano (ADA) $ 0.478045
solana
Solana (SOL) $ 142.46
matic-network
Polygon (MATIC) $ 0.678487
polkadot
Polkadot (DOT) $ 6.73
tron
TRON (TRX) $ 0.109649

Polygon unpacks zkEVM outage and ‘emergency’ improve

Must Read

Polygon’s zkEVM rollup entered an emergency state on March 23 after the chain stopped processing blocks. Final week, Polygon launched an evaluation of the outage that took its zkEVM down.

Polygon reported late Saturday that its zkEVM sequencer had failed, attributing the trigger to a reorg of the Ethereum mainnet. The postmortem states that the synchronizer for Polygon zkEVM mishandled the reorg, and the chain began processing batches of transactions with incorrect timestamps.

A blockchain reorganization, or reorg, occurs when a community discards blocks from a earlier model and adopts a brand new chain of blocks because the correct historical past of transactions. This may happen when completely different components of the community quickly disagree on latest transaction order or validity. The community finally converges on a single model of the reality, selecting the chain of blocks with essentially the most computational work (or, in some consensus mechanisms, essentially the most stake backing it) as the right sequence. Reorgs assist to make sure that the community stays safe and constant, although it could actually result in momentary uncertainties in transaction histories.

Learn extra: Polygon zkEVM prover reaches Kind 1 standing

Polygon zkEVM’s sequencer, which assembles and broadcasts batches of transactions to the community nodes, performs an important position within the ecosystem. It isn’t solely liable for ordering transactions but additionally assigns them timestamps, vital for sustaining a coherent historical past of transactions on the community. Nevertheless, in the course of the incident, the sequencer didn’t detect this reorg on the Ethereum mainnet.

This led to the processing of transactions primarily based on outdated info, including an incorrect world exit route — Polygon zkEVMs cryptographic methodology to make sure Ethereum layer-1 and Polygon’s layer-2 settlement — to the subsequent transaction block. The resultant mismatch brought about inaccuracies, disrupting the community’s capacity to keep up a constant document of the community’s ledger.

See also  Obvious 'Insiders’ Make Thousands and thousands After Grabbing Ethereum Model of Dogwifhat

Throughout the confusion, quite a lot of transactions had been processed by the community as no-operation, with the community appearing “as in the event that they weren’t there,” the autopsy stated. Synchronizing these empty transactions was a part of what made the community’s downtime lengthen so long as it did.

All-told, it took round 14 hours for the rollup to reopen for withdrawals, and round 4,000 transactions might have been affected by the outage, Polygon stated.

The outage solely affected Polygon zkEVM, which is in so-called mainnet beta and due to this fact may have bugs and availability points, based on Polygon’s assist web page. The Polygon PoS layer-1 and chains utilizing Polygon’s chain growth equipment (CDK) weren’t impacted.

Polygon’s zkEVM, quick for zero-knowledge Ethereum Digital Machine, is a layer-2 that makes use of zero-knowledge proofs to confirm transactions with the Polygon-operated sequencer earlier than settling batches of transactions on Ethereum. StarkWare and zkSync are constructing comparable merchandise. That is all in distinction to fashionable layer-2s like Arbitrum and Optimism, which perform as optimistic rollups and don’t use zero-knowledge proofs.

Learn extra: StarkWare’s zero-knowledge prover Stwo comes out of stealth

Shortly after the outage started, Polygon’s zkEVM went into an emergency state that halted the community and let an improve to the community’s prover and verifier be pushed by way of alongside a repair to maintain the sequencer from malfunctioning throughout a reorg.

Upon finishing this improve, the emergency state was deactivated, which means any additional updates to the system are topic to a 10-day timelock earlier than taking impact.

See also  ONI token’s worth crash and dev’s silence sparks fears of potential rug pull by Anonify devs

This occasion marked the primary time Polygon’s zkEVMs emergency state perform was used, and doing so required approval from the community’s Safety Council. When activated, this state halts sure operations, together with the updating of transactions and the functioning of the blockchain bridge, to guard customers’ property.

The council operates as a 6/8 multisig. Polygon says two of the council members are from Polygon Labs, however the identities of the Safety Council members usually are not publicly disclosed.

A 2023 weblog put up stated the group is “made up of extremely respected members of the Ethereum group” and will probably be dismantled as soon as Polygon zkEVM is able to ditch its “coaching wheels.”

The outage and its remediation factors to lingering centralization points throughout Ethereum layer-2 networks, based on Jarrod Watts, a developer relations engineer at Polygon Labs:

“The worst case state of affairs is an improve is carried out that steals consumer funds,” he stated on X. “This type of malicious improve is one thing that’s attainable on nearly each [layer-2] right now.”

However Watts added, “over time, IMO the danger of malicious upgrades to steal consumer funds on [layer-2s] will probably be zero or very near zero!”

Polygon zkEVM has struggled to realize whole quantity locked (TVL) and utilization, and has but to profit from Ethereum’s Dencun arduous fork. The chain is slated so as to add assist for the “blobspace” of EIP-4844 in a few month’s time, following its “Feijoa” improve.

LEAVE A REPLY

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Latest Articles

Largest Bitcoin Whales Amass $1,235,000,000 BTC Earlier than Halving

The most important tier of Bitcoin holders has restocked almost 20K BTC with a financial worth averaging $1.235 billion...

More Articles Like This